Cross and Fisher 1977 is a landmark and oft referenced study. The site truewheelers.org has this listed as the 1978 AAA Report: “This report describes the methods and results of the classic 1977 Cross/Fisher car/bike collision study”.
Here is the landing page to the complete volume I, DOT-HS-803-315 300 page .pdf file from the national Transp Library, which lists the problem types, and results.
The numbers/results seem to agree between the truewheelers html version and the HS803315 document.
Note that for whatever reason, vol 2 and vol 3 (DOT-HS-803-316 and 317) .pdf’s are not at the NTL website (volume III used to be here but that link died years ago).
In the study, the authors categorized the 36 types of crashes (Type 1 through 36) into 7 groups (Group A through Group G.).
The Cross/Fisher Class – Types, Percentage injuries/fatalities
|Accident type||Cross/Fisher Study: (injuries/fatalities)|
|Class A: Bicycle ride-out from driveway, alley and other midblock locations|
|Type 1: residential driveway ride-out||5.7%/6.7%|
|Type 2: commercial driveway ride-out||3.2/2.4|
|Type 3: parallel direction driveway ride-out||2.5/2.4|
|Type 4: ride-out over shoulder or curb||2.5/3.6|
|Total Class A:||13.9%/15.1%|
|Class B: Bicycle ride-out at controlled intersection|
|Type 5: stop sign or yield sign||10.2%/7.8%|
|Type 6: signal phase change; cyclist caught in intersection||3.1/0.6|
|Type 7: ride-out at signal: multiple threat||2.0/2.4|
|Total Class B:||17.0%/12.0%|
|Class C: Motorist turn/merge/drivethrough/driveout|
|Type 8: Motorist driveout from commercial driveway/alley||5.3%/0%|
|Type 9: Motorist failure to yield at stop or yield sign||10.2/1.2|
|Type 10: Motorist failure to yield at signal||1.9/0|
|Type 11: Motorist backing from driveway||0.8/0|
|Type 12: Motorist didn’t even slow for sign or signal||0.5/1.2|
|Total Class C:||18.7%/2.4%|
|Class D: Motorist overtaking/overtaking threat|
|Type 13: Motorist overtaking, cyclist not seen||4.0%/24.6%|
|Type 14: Motorist overtaking/out of control||0.7/4.2|
|Type 15: Motorist overtaking/counter active evasive action||1.7/2.4|
|Type 16: Motorist overtaking/misjudged space required to pass||2.0/1.8|
|Type 17: Motorist overtaking/cyclist’s path obstructed||2.0/0.6|
|Motorist Overtaking: Type unknown
|Total class D:||10.5%/37.8%|
|Class E: Bicyclist unexpected turn/swerve|
|Type 18: Bicyclist unexpected left turn; parallel paths; same direction||8.4%/8.4%|
|Type 19: Bicyclist unexpected left turn; parallel paths; opposite direction||3.2/3.0|
|Type 20: Bicyclist unexpected swerve left; parallel paths; same direction||1.5/3.6|
|Type 21: Wrong-way bicyclist turns right; parallel paths||1.1/1.2|
|Total Class E:||14.2%/16.2|
|Class F: Motorist unexpected turn
|Type 22: Motorist unexpected left turn; parallel paths; same direction||1.3%/0.6%|
|Type 23: Motorist unexpected left turn; parallel paths; opposite direction||7.6/0.0|
|Type 24: Motorist unexpected right turn; parallel paths||5.6/1.8|
|Total Class F:||14.5%/2.4%|
|Class G: Other
|Type 25: Vehicles collide at uncontrolled intersection; orthogonal paths||2.8%/0.6|
|Type 26: Vehicles collide head on, wrong way bicyclist||3.6/2.4|
|Type 27: Bicyclist overtaking||0.9/0.6|
|Type 28: Head-on; wrong way motorist||0.8/1.8|
|Type 29: Parking lot||0.8/0.8|
|Type 30: Head-on; counteractive evasive action||0.1/0|
|Type 31: Bicyclist cuts corner when turning left||0/0.6|
|Type 32: Bicyclist swings wide when turning right||0.3/0|
|Type 33: Motorist cuts corner when turning left||0.4/0|
|Type 34: Motorist swings wide when turning right||0.1/0|
|Type 35: Motorist driveout from on-street parking||0.3/0|
|Type 36: Weird||0/7.2|
|Total Class G:||11.2%/13.8%|
Notes: The study covered 166 fatalities, and 753 non-fatal injuries.
71% of the type 13 were in the dark, vs. only 30% of fatalities in general.
Tan study, type 13: Rural roads were overrepresented almost 2:1 (62 to 38%), Darkness overrepresented, High (60-70kph) and Very high speed (80+kph) roads overrepresented, 2 lane roads overrepresented.
Related link: The first Cross study.
Listening to Bike Lanes, Hiles delves into the overtaking (Group D, especially type 13) crash types.
FHWA Pedestrian and Bicycle Related Research Reports Lists a bunch of stuff, including references to FHWA-RD-95-163, Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s [full 192 page scanned .pdf or a summary page that erroneously says it is out of print and unavailable]. This report has a section on “Comparison to Earlier Results by Cross and Fisher”. See comment below about mis-categorization of, e.g., right-hooks as “parallel paths”. The Crash-Type Manual for Bicyclists (FHWA-RD-96-104, “by Carol Tan Esse”) also published 1996 (and appears to be all the same stuff / extracted from Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s mentioned above) It follows the general Cross & Fisher types, then adds a few others ( Here is [from archive.org] [ original link now dead] a handy page that took the dozens of individual pdfs and collated them into one table). This same pub number is apparently synonymous with “Hunter, W.W., J.C. Stutts, and W.E. Pein,Bicycle Crash Types: A 1990’s[sic]Informational Guide, Publication No. FHWA-RD-96-104, FHWA, Washington, DC, April 1997.” in the Federal Highway Administration University Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, lesson 3.
Also see PBCAT; I think they use same graphics for crash types.
Wachel and Lewiston, Risk Factors for Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions at Intersections is one of the few studies that includes exposure data.
The FHWA Bicycle Road Safety Audit (May 2012 FHWA-SA-12-018) has a handy Table 1. where they list 4 result-sets according to the gross grouping of Crossing vs. Non-crossing paths, along with the more specific breakdowns — they list 4 datasets: Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Crash Types from FHWA’s Six-State Study (which turns out to be the “…of the early ’90s” referred to above), North Carolina Rural / Urban, and Orlando, Florida Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO).
(the National Cooperative Highway Research Program; A forum for coordinated and collaborative research somehow related to the National Academies)…
NCHRP 17-18(3) Reducing Collisions Involving Bicycles, types of problems uses the usual crash-type pictograms, same as used in other FHWA docs. Seems to be from the mid-2000s.